Fault-propagation and fault-bend fold

These two models illustrate typical structures developed in fold and thrust belts. The photograph below shows a fault-bend fold from the Eohimalayan Fold and Thrust belt developed in Jurassic Kyoto Limestone, Spiti Valley, NW Himalaya, India (photograph by Gerhard Wiesmayr, Vienna). Offset is difficult to estimate but is in the range of several hundreds of metres.

Kyoto fault bend fold

These two models were designed by Gerhard Wiesmayr (email) from the Structural Processes Group Vienna, Austria. Gerhard's MSc research focussed on balancing cross-sections in the Eohimalayan Fold and Thrust belt - no doubt, his studies had an impact on model design.

The models can be made out of one single piece of paper, but we decided to split each model in two parts for easier model building. We strongly recommend that you photocopy the template on heavy A3 paper. The important steps during the building process are: (1) Glue the top surface to one cross-section. (2) Glue the top surface to the other cross-section. (3) Push the panels hard from the inside and let the glue dry. (4) Finish with the bottom. Done!

Fault-propagation and fault-bend fold

  • Fault-propagation fold

  • Fault-bend fold